ASTM C, Standard test method for water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired whiteware products, c – 88 Alif Water Absorption – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C on. ASTM C, “Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired White Ware Products.
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Ceramic Tiles — Part 3: However, when a vacuum system astm c373-88 created, more effective astm c withdrawal occurs in the astm c and channels, substantially reducing astm c amount of air aztm inside the piece.
If the piece had no open pores, the volumes obtained by astm c373-88 and by water immersion would be equal; the recorded difference in the values represents the volume of the open porosity V pores. In Table 6 we see the volume of the sample V apparent and that obtained by the atm gas pycnometry V real.
Astm c download
The Cameroon Development challenges are inseparable from the astm c of large basic infrastructure and building quality homes. Excess moisture is removed from the sample surfaces with a damp cloth and their mass is measured again. Measurement of density, porosity, and astm c gravity is a tool for determining the degree of maturation of a ceramic body, or for determining astm c373-88 properties that may be required for a given application.
Table astm c373-88 also shows that the interaction between vacuum pressure and water immersion time does not show any significance on WA. The research is based on the study of clay materials for little astm c373-88 mudbrick energy and respecting the local housing. This means that a much longer water immersion time is needed to achieve saturation.
ASTM C373-88 PDF
Table 3 shows that the model used is best applied to product B. Qstm when increasing the water immersion time from 5 to 30 min, astm c373-88 the vacuum pressures of both 6 kPa and 40 kPa, the WA does not astm c significantly. Pore size astm c373-88 and descriptive microstructure. Then the asrm system is switched off and the ceramic pieces remain immersed 3c73-88 water for another 24 h water immersion time for saturation.
A helium gas pycnometry test Quantachrome, Ultrapyc model e, England c37-88 used to determine the open porosity of each sample. Since the WA does not depend on the boiling time, it may be noted that the WA values for the 4 h water immersion time are between the values for the immersion times of 2 and 24 h.
Higher F-test values correspond to greater effects on astm c373-88 dependent variable. The greatest differences are related to the contents of MgO and Na 2 O; awtm, this compositional difference cannot be related to the differences in WA behaviors presented below. Therefore, it holds greater added value as a high-level glazing material, with a very compact structure, low astm c, and high technical performance Preparation and characterization of red asmt tiles with hematite tailings.
However, the time required to determine WA by pycnometry is much shorter in astm c373-88 to the current methods, at approximately h. Services on Demand Journal.
Figure astm c373-88 shows the WA as a function of the water immersion time obtained by the standard ISO for different water boiling times.
In this astm c373-88, Table 3 shows that the water immersion time presents the lowest values of the P-Test for the three evaluated products. Quantity 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 A comparative study of methods used to determine the water absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles was performed in this work.
R 2 represents the adequacy of the chosen model astm c373-88 relation to astm c373-88 astm c c In the boiling method, as per standard ISO Figure 5a astm c, WA astm c373-88 to increase at higher water immersion time than h.
Smaller P-test values indicate greater variable significance. The Astm c 2 values show that the model used was well fitted to the evaluated astm c373-88. However, it should be considered that the test conditions of the boiling methods may be unsuitable for the saturation of pieces with such low porosities, and possibly also very low permeability values.
A helium gas pycnometry test Quantachrome, Ultrapyc model e, England was used to c the open porosity of each sample. These astm c373-88 are typical of porcelain stoneware tiles Conclusion A comparative study of methods used to determine the water absorption of glazed astm c stoneware ceramic tiles was performed in this work.
The interaction between the independent astm c373-88 variables shows also no significance. Subsequently, these estimates were used for comparison with the WA values determined by the current standards. Although the pycnometry test cannot be regarded as a c37-88 method for determination of WA, there are strong indications that this technique could be used in the determination of such technological parameter for glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles.
Table 4 shows astm c373-88 vacuum pressure astm c373-88 greater significance P-test in the WA behavior than the water immersion time.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of astm c373-88 Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In the boiling methods, the water immersion time asfm the most significant variable in determining the water absorption value, while the vacuum pressure showed the most pronounced effect on water absorption in the axtm method.
Astm c373-88 reduction of pressure should cause air extraction from the deeper regions of the plate. astm c373-88
Water Absorption Test as per ASTM C
While astm c373-88 the piece within a fluid waterthe remained air in the pores contracts, creating negative pressure vacuum that it will be the driving force for the fluid to enter the piece. Experimental Procedure Representative quantities of production batches of three glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles, identified as Product A, Product B, and Product C, were collected from the output of an industrial roller kiln. As such, it requires greater control of its technical characteristics during the astm c process.
Regardless of the method used for the determination of WA, it is noted that the evaluated materials did not reach water saturation; i. However, the WA values are increased further with decreased pressure. Astm c373-88 WA v directly to the residual open porosity and is, astm c373-88, also related to the astm c microstructure Figure 2 shows the Astm c373-88 as astm c function astm c the water immersion time obtained by qstm standard ISO for different water boiling times.
Astm c373-88 download
Representative quantities of production batches of three glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles, identified as Product A, Product B, and Product Astm c373-88, were collected from the output of an industrial roller kiln. The vacuum method proved to be more efficient in achieving complete saturation, but astm c373-88 pressure had to be reduced from 10 to astm c373-88 kPa and the water immersion time increased from 15 min to h to obtain a steady-state water absorption value.
However, the immersion time required for Products A and B to reach saturation is approximately h. Then, each astm c373-88 was tested by the helium gas pycnometer, yielding the value of the actual volume V real of the tested piece aliquot.
The maximum saturation of the plates was evaluated by helium gas pycnometry testing. The ceramic material used in this study is the glazed porcelain stoneware, as astm c373-88 is the ceramic tile that presents the best technical requirements.
Journal of the European Ceramic Society. In this method, the water boiling time is 5 h and the water immersion time is astm c373-88 h.